Teaching Resources

Feedback

Apart from formal feedback practices that involve student evaluation, academics can approach the WCLA for a collaborative feedback approach designed to evaluate specific components of teaching practice. Feedback helps new and experienced academics to better reflect upon what they do to help students learn more effectively.

WCLA provides one-to-one support to academic staff in the form of feedback. Academics can approach the WCLA to co-develop a feedback framework that best suits their needs. This framework can include arrangements for WCLA to conduct peer observations of lectures or tutorials as many times as needed. The feedback can be framed into a number of agreed outcomes such as looking at specific elements of a lecture or tutorial. In most cases, the academic can ask for feedback around fostering active learning, engaging students in large or small classes, presentation skills, providing feedback to students by responding effectively to in-class questions, and using educational technologies in classrooms.

Academics in the past have benefited from peer review and have valued highly the feedback on teaching that they receive from WCLA. The feedback from WCLA can also be used for documenting evidence of teaching practice or applying for awards.

Contact WCLA to make an appointment.

Subject Design

Subject design helps to plan for, deliver and reflect upon the curriculum. It assists academics to design the most important set of knowledge, skills and attributes to include in a subject that maximises the learning experience and potential of students. It considers a sound and aligned curriculum where learning outcomes, teaching and learning activities and assessments are interrelated.

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WCLA provides support for subject coordinators to create or redesign subjects based on sound pedagogy and research-supported practice. The support focuses on fostering a student-centred learning experience. This collaboration between the academic and WCLA will focus on the educational purposes of the subject, the planned educational experiences to reach those purposes, how those experiences are organised and how to evaluate if those purposes are achieved.

Contact WCLA to make an appointment.

Assessment

Teaching consultations around assessment will focus on examining current assessment practices used in the subjects and the potential of various types of alternative assessments. The main objective is to align assessments with learning outcomes and the teaching and learning activities that are experienced in the subject.

WCLA provides this support to academics to ensure that assessments are not only designed as assessments of learning but also assessments for learning. The collaboration between the academic and the WCLA will focus on the student at the centre of the assessment practice where students receive meaningful information about where they are and how they get to achieve the desired learning outcomes.

Contact WCLA to make an appointment.

Preparing to Lecture

Preparing to teach should start with you finding out the broader education context of your teaching environment and the context in which your students are learning. It is thus imperative that you become familiar with The Melbourne Curriculum.

Lecturers and tutors play a central and important role in ensuring that students achieve the desired learning outcomes of The Melbourne Curriculum. This is achieved by creating an interactive and positive learning and teaching environment that supports students’ learning. The information and resources provided will enable you prepare and enhance your teaching specifically in the Faculty of Business and Economics at The University of Melbourne.

Links to FBE resources:

Lecturer roles & responsibilities

How to Start Your First Lecture

Teaching Strategies

Using a range of teaching and learning activities can help to better engage students and encourage a deeper learning approach. It is important to view teaching spaces (lectures, tutorials, workshops, seminars, labs) as a method for providing students the opportunity for active learning rather than as simply a space for transferring information (Biggs & Tang, 2001). In order for this to happen, teaching staff should shift their focus from what the teacher does to what the students should be doing and/or what we want them to be doing (Biggs & Tang, 2007). A range of teaching and learning activities are provided that encourage a teaching and learning environment conducive to active student learning.

Useful Resources:

Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does, Open University Press, United Kingdom.

Biggs, J., and Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for Quality Learning at University, 3rd ed. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw Hill.

Links to resources:

Effective Lectures

Teaching Strategies

Teaching strategies for new environments

Evaluating Student Learning

The University of Melbourne Assessment Policy states that ‘Assessment and grading in subjects must be criterion-referenced and aligned to specific subject learning outcomes, including the graduate attributes and the generic skills they encompass'.

https://policy.unimelb.edu.au/MPF1326#section-4.6

The use of criterion referencing for assessment shifts the focus of assessment and grading away from simply testing and ranking students to using assessment as a teaching and learning method. In criterion-referenced assessment, students are assessed on whether they meet specifically set criteria; such as analysis, evaluation and critique. They are usually set out in assessment criteria, which include the explicit articulation of the criteria that explain what is required to pass or achieve specific grades. In order for students to meet the set criteria they need to know and learn how to achieve the learning outcomes (Biggs & Tang, 2007, p. 177).

Biggs, J., and Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for Quality Learning at University, 3rd ed. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw Hill.

Links to resources:

Assessment and Marking

Group work as a form of assessment

Authentic Assessment

Student Feedback

The University of Melbourne Assessment Policy states that:

  • Students are entitled to, and should expect to receive feedback.
  • Written feedback should indicate to students how they have performed against assessment criteria and indicate how a student can improve their performance, ideally indicating what specifically should be done to achieve outstanding and/or improved results.

https://policy.unimelb.edu.au/MPF1326#section-4.10

It is important to focus on providing students with positive comments and comments on how to do things differently in the future in a constructive manner.

Feedback should:

  • Include comments about the student’s work and provide them with an indication of the relative quality of their work.
  • Explain what was done well, and/or not well, often in reference to the Assessment Criteria and any other articulated expectations.
  • Be constructive and provide helpful guidelines for a better performance next time.

Link to resources:

Creating and using rubrics

Documenting Teaching Effectiveness

It is important to keep a record of what constitutes teaching effectiveness. In order to document your teaching effectiveness it is important to be aware of the Nine Principles Guiding Teaching and Learning in the University.

The nine principles can help you determine what forms of evidence you need to collect. The Student Experience Survey (SES) only form one part of your teaching effectiveness. Your teaching portfolio should also include evidence of teaching effectiveness beyond student evaluations. For example, your evidence can include how specifically you foster “an atmosphere of intellectual excitement” and how you communicate “clear academic expectations and standards”. Other forms of evidence can include how you promote student participation, active learning and engagement; how you manage diversity; how you request for, give and act on feedback; how you use educational technologies to promote student engagement; how you approach teaching to influence, motivate and inspire students; or how you approach assessments to promote independent learning and better learning outcomes. Being aware of what you need to document is a good way for you to reflect on your teaching practice. It can also save you a lot of time when applying for teaching awards offered by the Faculty and the University.

Developing a Teaching Portfolio

The University of Melbourne teaching staff is advised to develop a portfolio that describes their teaching experience, achievements and effectiveness. The teaching portfolio provides you an opportunity to evaluate and reflect on your teaching practice. Links to guidelines on how to record and document teaching achievements are provided. We have also included a link to The University of Melbourne LMS tools that enables you to build a portfolio as web pages to record and demonstrate your achievements and abilities.

Links to information about Teaching Portfolios

Preparing a Teaching Portfolio

LMS Portfolio tools

Developing Your Teaching Portfolio

Vanderbilt Teaching Portflios

Teaching Support Readings

Online Course Development

Online Course Development is a process that requires a Subject Matter Expert (SME) to work with an expert in Learning Design to reframe a subject’s offering for the online arena. A Learning Designer uses theories, models and strategies for both the teaching and learning realm in an effort to contextualise content. The learning design process does not control what is being taught – the process focusses on how the content is taught specifically in this offering. The learning designer can work with a technologist to enhance the design solution using graphics/illustrations, simulations, charts, etc. The design process will include the need for expertise from the library as well as those in charge of learning environments. Once the design process is completed the course is available for delivery. The team will comprise of the participants as indicated in the figure below:

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The process

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Blended Learning and the Flipped Classroom

The use of Internet tools and Technology resources as ways of improving the engagement in delivery is a common phenomenon in teaching and learning. The most important factor towards improvement is the understanding that the use of technology and/or Internet tools will not automatically improve the delivery of the subject as well as the learning occurring in the subject – how the tools are used is key to improvements and ultimately successes.

What is Blended Learning?

Blended learning is course design method where face to face delivery strategies are combined with online delivery strategies.This method aims to use the best of both strategies to provide an enhanced learning experience based on the learner population, subject content and overall context of the course.

What is the Flipped Classroom Method?

The Flipped Classroom can be implemented in many ways, but the core principle involves the delivery of direct instruction to be taken outside of the classroom. whilst the practice and application takes place within the classroom. The originators state that Flipped Classroom overlaps with blended learning and m-learning and state that the method focusses on how best to use the in-class time with learners (Sams and Bergmann, 2013)

Sams, A., & Bergmann, J. (2013). Flip Your Students' Learning. Educational leadership, 70(6), 16-20.

Is there a Difference between Blended Learning and Flipped Classroom?

There is a clear difference between both designs. Flipped classrooms do not necessarily have to use technology to deliver the instruction outside of the class. The originators use the direct delivery of content as a method outside of the class as a way for the learners to get the knowledge before coming to class. Only then is the knowledge activated through active participation in exercises, etc. Blended Learning always involves technology at some instance. The material delivered online is not replaced by face to face materials and vice versa; both modes work together to create one learning environment that is complementary to the content’s delivery strategy.

Additional Resources

  • The Melbourne CSHE provides teaching support and resources for staff.

    Case-Based Teaching

    Case studies are an increasingly important pedagogy in teaching. They are considered an important way to relate theories to the "real" world and they help students develop analytic as well as action-oriented skills. Typically, cases are used to help students analyse situations and to identify problems; then they develop, evaluate and discuss potential solutions. There is rarely one "right" answer and, instead, students are encouraged to consider a range of potential solutions and to evaluate their pros and cons, as well as contextualizing and tailoring generic solutions to address the specifics of a particular case study. Case-based teaching requires you to be able to conduct, coordinate, and facilitate a group discussion around a case study. It thus requires very different skills compared to traditional lecturing. Below you will find some resources designed to help you acquire these skills.

    Click on the particular resource that you are interested in:

    Downloadable Resource Pack

    Video clips on Case-Based Teaching

    We provide the following video clips that will help you see case-based teaching skills in action. Click on the themes you're interested in.

    MCSHE Resources

    For further Teaching Resources (including for those new to teaching), see: http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/#resources